Tania , Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, (University of Delhi); Srishti Prajapati, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, (University of Delhi); Sarika Jha, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, (University of Delhi); Sohil Jain, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, (University of Delhi); Tejpal Dhewa, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, (University of Delhi)
GIT, GDP, DNA
Today there is an emerging need to develop technique and tools for detecting microorganism useful in different sectors including food safety, health, agriculture, defense, etc. Already there are many detection methods, but due to some limitations, these not suitable for commercial applications. However, an intensive research for the commercial biosensor still under progress. In this paper, we intend to present the essence for such sensors with the review of present and future trends. Also, we hereby propose a viable design that could achieve the required goals at low cost.
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Author Name : V.Srilakshmi, Mr P. Damodharan
College Name : Akshaya College of Engineering and Technology, Kinathukadavu
Area of Research: Computer Science & Engineering
Abstract — The control of voyage systems has become increasingly important in many applications one important application is hauling by different mediums such as skyways, pathways, bar ways and so on. These applications usually involve queries over locality connections with dynamically unstable and multifarious trip conditions. There may be potential of user’s secrecy violated when they are querying about the general required data on the private party servers where the position information about the users will be recognized. The sinful attackers may theft the position information about the client. The k nearest neighbor query verification with location points on Voronoi diagram implementation requires high cost. The Directional aware Bichromatic Reverse K-NN by assigning each item and query with a confined region is applied such that the highpriced recomputation is not required as long as the query and objects remain in their respective confined regions. The proposed system reduces the cost in client-server architectures because an object does not report its location to the server unless it leaves its confined region or the server sends a position update appeal. Lebesgue curve is used here for the capability of fully preserving the neighbouring adjacency of the original data. The user data is sheltered by applying Lebesgue transform over the distinctive values and storing the transformed values in the Lebesque curve.
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Zero-emission cars that run on hydrogen
Fuel cell” vehicles have been long promised, as they potentially offer several major advantages over electric and hydrocarbon-powered vehicles. However, the technology has only now begun to reach the stage where automotive companies are planning to launch them for consumers. Initial prices are likely to be in the range of $70,000, but should come down significantly as volumes increase within the next couple of years.
Unlike batteries, which must be charged from an external source, fuel cells generate electricity directly, using fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas. In practice, fuel cells and batteries are combined, with the fuel cell generating electricity and the batteries storing this energy until demanded by the motors that drive the vehicle. Fuel cell vehicles are therefore hybrids, and will likely also deploy regenerative braking – a key capability for maximizing efficiency and range.
Unlike battery-powered electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles behave as any conventionally fuelled vehicle. With a long cruising range – up to 650 km per tank (the fuel is usually compressed hydrogen gas) – a hydrogen fuel refill only takes about three minutes. Hydrogen is clean-burning, producing only water vapour as waste, so fuel cell vehicles burning hydrogen will be zero-emission, an important factor given the need to reduce air pollution.
There are a number of ways to produce hydrogen without generating carbon emissions. Most obviously, renewable sources of electricity from wind and solar sources can be used to electrolyse water – though the overall energy efficiency of this process is likely to be quite low. Hydrogen can also be split from water in high-temperature nuclear reactors or generated from fossil fuels such as coal or natural gas, with the resulting CO2 captured and sequestered rather than released into the atmosphere.
As well as the production of cheap hydrogen on a large scale, a significant challenge is the lack of a hydrogen distribution infrastructure that would be needed to parallel and eventually replace petrol and diesel filling stations. Long distance transport of hydrogen, even in a compressed state, is not considered economically feasible today. However, innovative hydrogen storage techniques, such as organic liquid carriers that do not require high-pressure storage, will soon lower the cost of long-distance transport and ease the risks associated with gas storage and inadvertent release.
Mass-market fuel cell vehicles are an attractive prospect, because they will offer the range and fuelling convenience of today’s diesel and petrol-powered vehicles while providing the benefits of sustainability in personal transportation. Achieving these benefits will, however, require the reliable and economical production of hydrogen from entirely low-carbon sources, and its distribution to a growing fleet of vehicles (expected to number in the many millions within a decade).