Tania , Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, (University of Delhi); Srishti Prajapati, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, (University of Delhi); Sarika Jha, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, (University of Delhi); Sohil Jain, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, (University of Delhi); Tejpal Dhewa, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, (University of Delhi)
GIT, GDP, DNA
Today there is an emerging need to develop technique and tools for detecting microorganism useful in different sectors including food safety, health, agriculture, defense, etc. Already there are many detection methods, but due to some limitations, these not suitable for commercial applications. However, an intensive research for the commercial biosensor still under progress. In this paper, we intend to present the essence for such sensors with the review of present and future trends. Also, we hereby propose a viable design that could achieve the required goals at low cost.
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IJSRD is a leading e-journal, under which we are encouraging and exploring newer ideas of current trends in Engineering and Science by publishing papers containing pure knowledge. The Journal is started with noble effort to help the researchers in their work and also to share knowledge and research ideas. All research interested scholars are given best opportunity to make world aware of their work. With precise and analytical narration of knowledge by our reviewers, our journal is providing implemental economy and latest global transposition to research. This monthly journal is mainly started to help researching peers belongs to Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Research students.We publish original and high quality papers. We aim to cover the latest outstanding development in the fields of Engineering and Technologies. All the published papers are submitted to the major indexing services for indexing.
Zero-emission cars that run on hydrogen
Fuel cell” vehicles have been long promised, as they potentially offer several major advantages over electric and hydrocarbon-powered vehicles. However, the technology has only now begun to reach the stage where automotive companies are planning to launch them for consumers. Initial prices are likely to be in the range of $70,000, but should come down significantly as volumes increase within the next couple of years.
Unlike batteries, which must be charged from an external source, fuel cells generate electricity directly, using fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas. In practice, fuel cells and batteries are combined, with the fuel cell generating electricity and the batteries storing this energy until demanded by the motors that drive the vehicle. Fuel cell vehicles are therefore hybrids, and will likely also deploy regenerative braking – a key capability for maximizing efficiency and range.
Unlike battery-powered electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles behave as any conventionally fuelled vehicle. With a long cruising range – up to 650 km per tank (the fuel is usually compressed hydrogen gas) – a hydrogen fuel refill only takes about three minutes. Hydrogen is clean-burning, producing only water vapour as waste, so fuel cell vehicles burning hydrogen will be zero-emission, an important factor given the need to reduce air pollution.
There are a number of ways to produce hydrogen without generating carbon emissions. Most obviously, renewable sources of electricity from wind and solar sources can be used to electrolyse water – though the overall energy efficiency of this process is likely to be quite low. Hydrogen can also be split from water in high-temperature nuclear reactors or generated from fossil fuels such as coal or natural gas, with the resulting CO2 captured and sequestered rather than released into the atmosphere.
As well as the production of cheap hydrogen on a large scale, a significant challenge is the lack of a hydrogen distribution infrastructure that would be needed to parallel and eventually replace petrol and diesel filling stations. Long distance transport of hydrogen, even in a compressed state, is not considered economically feasible today. However, innovative hydrogen storage techniques, such as organic liquid carriers that do not require high-pressure storage, will soon lower the cost of long-distance transport and ease the risks associated with gas storage and inadvertent release.
Mass-market fuel cell vehicles are an attractive prospect, because they will offer the range and fuelling convenience of today’s diesel and petrol-powered vehicles while providing the benefits of sustainability in personal transportation. Achieving these benefits will, however, require the reliable and economical production of hydrogen from entirely low-carbon sources, and its distribution to a growing fleet of vehicles (expected to number in the many millions within a decade).
IJSRD is pleased to inform you that IIT Bombay presents Asia’s Largest Science and Technology Festival. TISC(Conference) event is supported by IJSRD. Techfest International Student Conference is an initiative to bring together the student community and professors with a common research background. TISC marks a step further in our endeavor to promote science and technology among the students by facilitating the exchange of knowledge between academia and industry. For more details, please visit the following link: www.techfest.org/conference
IJSRD is a leading e-journal, under which we are encouraging and exploring newer ideas of current trends in Engineering and Science by publishing papers containing pure knowledge. IJSRD is mainly started to help researching peers belongs to Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Research students. IJSRD aims to cover the latest outstanding development in the fields of Engineering and Technologies.For submitting paper online, click here: Submit Manuscript Online
|Subject Category||:||Engineering Science and Technology|
|Frequency||:||Monthly, 12 issues per year|
|Published by||:||I.J.S.R.D. , INDIA|